San Miguel is one of the four largest counties in New Mexico, comprised of approximately 4 million acres. The county's total population is 30,126 people, and has a median income of $22,772. Seventy Eight percent of the population is Hispanic. Beef cattle ranching is the single largest private business, with an estimated 35,000 head of cattle in San Miguel which ranks the county 11th in the state. There are 565 farms in the county with an estimated 2,091,643 acres throughout these farms.
The two major employers are the Las Vegas Medical Center and the New Mexico State Department of Transportation. There is a high percentage of WIC, Food Stamp and Social Service Clientele. the Montezuma Castle and the Rough Rider Museum are two county attractions, not including the historic district and historic buildings.